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1. Bài đọc IELTS chủ đề Health
Changing Our Understanding of Health
A For many individuals and groups, the concept of health has diverse connotations. These definitions of health have evolved over time as well. There is no better example of this development than how concepts of health and health promotion are being enlarged and challenged in modern Western society.
B Health has primarily been viewed in the physical sense throughout recent Western history. In other words, good health has traditionally been associated with the body’s smooth mechanical operation, while poor health has traditionally been associated with a malfunction in this machine. According to medical definitions, health in this sense is the absence of disease or illness. In accordance with this viewpoint, promoting people’s health entails offering medical care to treat or prevent illness and disease. During this time, emphasis was placed on supplying clean water, better sanitary conditions, and housing.
C The World Health Organization questioned this physically and medically focused perspective on health in the late 1940s. “Health is a comprehensive condition of physical, mental, and social well-being and is not only the absence of disease,” they claimed (WHO, 1946). Rather than focusing solely on the physical, health and the individual were considered more holistically (mind, body, and spirit)
D In the 1970s, emphasis was placed on the value of an individual’s lifestyle and behavior in the prevention of disease and sickness. Targeted behaviors included smoking, being physically inactive, and having poor eating habits because these were thought to raise the risk of diseases. Health promotion programs and policies that would assist people in maintaining healthy behaviors and lifestyles were also necessary to promote health, in addition to medical health treatment. While some (the rich members of society) profited from this individualistic, healthy lifestyle approach to health, it was less effective for those who experienced poverty, unemployment, underemployment, or little influence over the circumstances of their daily existence. This was largely a result of the medical and healthy lifestyle approaches to health ignoring the social and environmental factors that affect people’s health.
E There has been a significant shift away from seeing lifestyle risks as the main contributor to poor health during the 1980s and 1990s. Health is now seen in terms of the social, economic, and environmental contexts in which people live, even though lifestyle elements are still crucial. The socio-ecological view of health refers to this comprehensive approach to health. At the first International Conference of Health Promotion, which took place in Ottawa, Canada, in 1986, participants from 38 different nations agreed and stated that:
Peace, housing, education, food, a livable income, a stable eco-system, sustainable resources, social justice, and equity are the primary prerequisites and resources for health. A strong base in these fundamental needs is necessary for health improvement. (WHO, 1986).
This remark makes it very evident that promoting healthy individual behaviors and lifestyles and offering proper medical care are only a small part of what it takes to create health. In order to create health, it is necessary to address problems like poverty, pollution, urbanization, the depletion of natural resources, social alienation, and unfavorable working circumstances. The social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health do not function apart from or independently of one another. Instead, they interact and are dependent on one another, and the complicated relationships that exist between them are what establish the circumstances that encourage health. A comprehensive socio-ecological perspective on health argues that a strong social, economic, and environmental focus is necessary for its promotion.
F A charter that identified new pathways for health promotion based on the socio-ecological concept of health was developed during the Ottawa Conference in 1986. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion serves as the cornerstone of current health initiatives. It states that while examining the reach of health promotion:
A key component of quality of life and a crucial resource for social, economic, and personal development is good health. Health can be benefited or harmed by elements in the political, economic, social, cultural, environmental, behavioral, and biological spheres. (WHO, 1986).
This broad concept of health promotion is given concrete meaning and action by the Ottawa Charter. It offers key methods and ideas for achieving universal health. These essential methods and approaches are guided by the general health promotion idea of “allowing individuals to increase control over and improve their health” (WHO, 1986).
The reading passage has six paragraphs, B-F. Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-F from the list of headings below.
Write the appropriate numbers (i-ix) in boxes on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.
List of Headings
i) Ottawa International Conference on Health Promotion
ii) A holistic view of health
iii) The significance of environmental elements in general
iv) The emphasis on leading healthy lifestyles
v) Changes in concepts of health in Western society
vi) Prevention of diseases and illness
vii) Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
viii) Definition of health in medical terms
ix) A socioeconomic perspective on health.
2. Bài đọc IELTS chủ đề Health
Nurturing talent within the family
What exactly does it mean to be “talented” or “gifted”? The simplest straightforward method is to assess someone’s work and declare them talented if they have the potential for great success. The strictly quantitative approach, known as “percentage definition,” defines giftedness by looking at percentages rather than individuals, such as the top 5% of the population. This definition has lost favor as IQ tests, which are favored by luminaries like Professor Hans Eysenck and involve a series of written or verbal tests of general intellect and yield an intelligence score, have emerged.
Each new development has surpassed the IQ test. The majority of researchers that study intelligence and creativity in the new millennium today favor a broader definition and a multidimensional strategy that recognizes skills in many areas rather than just focusing on academic accomplishment. Does this suggest intelligence can flow in families as a genetic or inherited propensity if we are thinking that brilliant, creative, or gifted persons may need to be tested across a spectrum of abilities? A healthy mental capacity can be passed from parent to child, but can mental illness like schizophrenia?
Animal trials shed some light on this issue as well as the general question of whether intellect and creative ability are influenced by genetics, the environment, or a combination of the two. Rat intelligence, or “rat thinking,” varies greatly amongst rat strains. The “bright” strain makes far fewer erroneous turns than the “dull” strain if these are raised under typical circumstances and subsequently through a maze to obtain a food goal. But the quantity of mistakes equalizes if the setting is rendered dreary and monotonous. When the rats are placed in an engaging maze, the disparity reappears but is much lower than previously. To put it another way, a dull rat in an environment that is exciting will perform nearly as well as a bright rat that is bored in a typical one. This idea is true for people as well; even if someone has intrinsic intellect, their environment will likely ultimately determine whether they develop into a creative person or even a genius.
There is now proof that most young children can develop significant and long-lasting levels of academic or athletic prowess if given the right circumstances and motivation. Children that are intelligent or creative are frequently physically active at the same time, and as a result, they may almost automatically receive greater parental supervision to guarantee their safety. They might also start talking earlier, which increases parental attention. Even if they may be intelligent themselves, this can occasionally lead to issues with other siblings who may feel envious. Their artistic abilities can be unappreciated and so never be realized. As a result, two themes appear to be shared among well-known creative families. The first is that each child’s skills were recognized by the parents, who then nurtured and supported them in a fair manner. Individuality was valued, and healthy sibling rivalry was not viewed as a major issue. If the father, for example, is a well-known actor, there isn’t any pressure put on the kids to join him on the boards; instead, their chosen hobbies are supported. Since someone always needs to launch the family career, as in the instance of the Sheen acting dynasty, there doesn’t even need to be any obvious skill in such a family.
A Spanish immigrant father and an Irish mother gave birth to ten children, with Martin Sheen being the eighth. Despite strong parental opposition, he decided against taking the university admission tests and instead borrowed money from a local priest to launch a fledgling acting career. He became one of the most well-liked performers of the 1970s thanks to his performances in movies like Badlands and Apocalypse Now. Because of his drive and excitement, three of his sons—Emilio Estevez, Ramon Estevez, and Charlie Sheen—have chosen to enter the industry.
Creative families seem to be connected by a stream. Parents of such children may not always shower them with affection. They feel protected and loved and are happy in their home, yet they are frequently surrounded by others who prioritize work and following their vocation. They may learn from their parents that mastery of a craft requires time and devotion, so once they begin working, they are less eager to succeed for themselves.
It takes a complicated combination of factors to produce creativity: genetics, environment, parental guidance, and luck to determine how successful or talented family members are. Although luck is frequently overlooked when discussing talent, it surely matters. Mozart was fortunate to live in a time where making music was encouraged because he is widely regarded as the greatest composer of all time. He was raised in a musical family, and his musician father sacrificed his work to support his son’s talent. As a result, he picked up musical composition at the startlingly rapid pace of a genius. Mozart did not necessarily see himself as a genius; he could produce sublime music on demand and frequently chose to lead a hedonistic lifestyle that he found more fascinating than producing music on demand. Mozart merely wanted to produce the best music ever composed.
Two other instances of persons whose abilities have developed because of the eras they lived in are Bill Gates and Albert Einstein. Although Einstein was a solitary, rather slow boy who had attention at home, his extraordinary intelligence manifested itself without any apparent parental guidance. This may have been partially because many of the Newtonian rules of physics were being questioned at the beginning of the 20th century, creating a favorable environment for the development of theories like his. Although Bill Gates may have had the innovative insight to create Microsoft, he might not have attained the position he holds today on the global stage if the new computer era hadn’t begun to emerge at the same time.
Which THREE of the following does the writer regard as a feature of creative families?
Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes on your answer sheet.
A greater than typical degree of paternal love
B competing between sisters and brothers
C parents who are dedicated to their careers
D great desire to study for examinations and enter university
E a patient approach to achieving success
F the determination of the family’s most gifted child.
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