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Bài mẫu Reading IELTS
The race to the moon between the United States and Russia launched the space era when the Soviet artificial satellite Sputnik was launched in 1957. Large budgets and cutting-edge technology defined this competition. During this process, there were many spin-offs in addition to some spectacular triumphs and failures.
This space club of the superpowers was soon joined by Europe, Japan, China, and India. Smaller countries in Asia can now develop their own space capacities thanks to the development of reasonably priced, high-performance mini-satellites and launchers. How, how will these powers be used, and for what purpose?
A. Since the days of “fire arrows,” bamboo poles loaded with gunpowder that were first used in China around 500 BC and during the Sung Dynasty to fend off Mongol invaders at the fight of Kaifeng (Kai-fung fu) in AD 1232, rocket technology has advanced significantly. These antiquated missiles are in sharp contrast to the modern Chinese rocket launch vehicles, known as the “Long March,” which aim to send a Chinese astronaut into space by 2005 and possibly make a lunar landing by the end of the decade.
B. Asia has experienced a sharp increase in space operations over the past ten years, both in terms of the production of satellites and launchers as well as the use of space-based services. Many commentators and analysts have predicted that Asia will become a global space power as a result of this rapid growth. The space era has had a profound impact on society globally, directly influencing fields such as telecommunications, weather forecasting, environmental monitoring, and disaster relief (flood, forest fires, and oil spills). Particularly eager to embrace these changes have been Asian countries.
C. Satellites are constantly being used in novel ways that have the potential to be revolutionary, such as in the fields of health and telemedicine, remote learning, crime prevention (high seas piracy), food and agricultural planning and production (rice crop monitoring). The competitive business space industry, the emergence of low-cost mini-satellites, and the globalization of the industrial and financial markets all have a significant impact on space in Asia. In light of these patterns, it is unclear how Asian space will evolve in the ensuing decades. To ascertain the potential effects on the region, it is crucial to comprehend and evaluate the forces and factors that shape Asian space activities and growth.
D. Japan, China, and India are the only Asian countries currently in possession of a full space system, including satellite manufacturing, space technology, rocketry, and spaceports. With its plans to build a launch site and spaceport, South Korea is presently attempting to join their ranks despite already being self-sufficient in terms of satellite design and production. Additional countries with indigenous space programs include those in Southeast Asia as well as those bordering the Indian peninsula (Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh). In various degrees, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has adopted foreign technology-based space applications, and over the past five years or so, its space activities have increased. Because of telecommunications (mobile and fixed services), the Internet, and remote sensing applications, Southeast Asia is expected to become the biggest and fastest-growing market for commercial space goods and applications. Numerous non-technical factors, including politics, economics, culture, and history interact and play significant parts in the development of this technology, which in turn influences Asian technology.
E. Numerous recurring, significant environmental issues plague Asia and Southeast Asia in particular, including storms and flooding, forest fires and deforestation, and agricultural failures. Remote sensing is the space technology that has thus far garnered the most interest in this area. Land-use mapping, natural resource accounting, environmental management, disaster monitoring, and sustainable development planning all rely on data from remote sensing satellites that are outfitted with equipment to capture pictures of the ground at various wavelengths. These apps have advanced quickly and impressively. Contrary to Japan, China, and India, ASEAN countries do not possess their own remote sensing satellites, but the majority of them have the infrastructure necessary to receive, process, and interpret data from American and European satellites. Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore in particular have top-notch study programs and remote sensing processing facilities. ASEAN has intentions to create (and deploy) its own satellites, particularly satellites for remote sensing. Japan is regarded as Asia’s leading space force, and both its track record of accomplishments and the caliber of its technologies are on par with those of the West. Given the technological difficulties and high risks associated with space activities, a very steep and expensive learning curve was pursued in order to accomplish the successes attained. The military and defense buying practices used in the US and Europe served as the foundation for Japan’s satellite manufacturing.
F. In order to significantly lower costs, fundamental changes in satellite design and construction have recently been made. Asian nations now have the chance to cut their learning curve by a decade or more thanks to the development of “small satellites” and their fast adoption of them as a means of producing low-cost satellite technology and establishing a space capability. A highly competitive Asian satellite manufacturing industry may very well result from the global expansion of technology transfer mechanisms and the use of easily available commercial technology to replace expensive space and military-standard components.
G. The fundamentals of electronics and mechanics transcend political and societal boundaries, and the laws of physics are the same in Toulouse as they are in Tokyo. Engineering practices and management, on the other hand, are not subject to such immutability; they are heavily affected by education, culture, and history. Costs, lead times, product designs, and ultimately global sales are all impacted by these variables. Many Asian countries are sending their experts to the West for training. They return to work in the expanding Asian space business with a wealth of experience. Will this technical expertise be used to construct top-notch satellites and cut costs, perhaps in combination with the well-known Japanese manufacturing and management techniques?
Câu hỏi bài mẫu Reading IELTS:
The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-G
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-G from the list below.
Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
Western nations offer crucial help
Uneven progress for a crucial space device
Innovative use is required by rivalry
An old invention with potential applications
Military purpose of the satellite
Rockets for application in ancient China
Space development in Asia in the past
Non-technology factors counts
Competitive advantage from more affordable satellite
1 Paragraph A
2 Paragraph B
3 Paragraph C
Paragraph D Example: Asia’s ongoing space technology growth